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Indigenous America and the Limits of the Atlantic World, ; 8.

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Africa and the Atlantic, c. From Atlantic History to Continental History; Hemispheric History and Atlantic History; Atlantic History and Global History; Beyond Atlantic History. Du kanske gillar. Growth Vaclav Smil Inbunden. Extreme Ownership Jocko Willink Inbunden. Spara som favorit. Earl J. For a survey of this literature and its contributions, see chapter 4 in this volume. John H. Paris: Colin, — A number of Spanish scholars have explored the commercial reach of the Spanish Atlantic system. See also Stuart Schwartz, ed.

Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Andrien, The Kingdom of Quito, p. Two works by Stanley J. See Stanley J. Another broadly comparative book, focusing exclusively on the Spanish Empire, is David J. After suffering indignities at the hands of the Spaniards, Manco Inca led a rebellion in that nearly recaptured Cusco and drove the Spaniards from the highlands. When his army began to disintegrate later in the year, the Sapa Inca established a rival kingdom in the remote jungle region of Vilcabamba, and his successors remained there until the Spanish captured the fortress in Andrien and Rolena Adorno, eds.

Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, p. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, pp. In Europe the religious orders most commonly lived communally in religious houses or monasteries. In contrast to the religious orders, the secular clergy ministered directly to the laity or saeculum, and they were subject to the authority of the local bishop.

The secular clergy were composed of the hierarchy of bishops, the cathedral chapters, and the parish clergy. Gibson, Spain in America, p. The pope granted these privileges in two concessions, in and in Haring, Spanish Empire in America, p. The trade with the Far East through Manila was only tangentially related to the Atlantic trade, but one recent study of the volume of American silver passing to Asia indicates that it became increasingly important over time. See William Schell, Jr. Portugal was united with Spain in when the childless King Sebastian was killed in an ill-fated military crusade in Africa.

Elliott, Imperial Spain, pp. Henry Kamen has argued that Spain had begun a recovery during the reign of Charles II and that the War of the Spanish Succession did not produce as much economic dislocation as other historians have argued. Kenneth J. Burkholder and D. Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade, and War, pp.

Ibid, pp. In King Charles III created a second ministerial portfolio with special responsibilities over justice and civil and judicial appointments gracia y justicia. The Crown also began to establish intendancies in Spain by Stein and Stein, Apogee of Empire, pp. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, pp. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, In Brazil declared its independence from Portugal. The Portuguese Crown claimed sovereignty over Atlantic archipelagoes and the territories bordering the Atlantic in continental Africa and South America.

Portuguese settled islands and continents bordering the Atlantic and established towns, cities, and institutions. Portuguese became the most widely spoken European language in the Atlantic sphere. By exposing them to Christianity and slavery, Portuguese transformed the lives of millions of Amerindians and Africans.

Either of two perspectives might serve as a framework for this chapter. This approach emphasizes the individual over the Crown, examining how individuals created their own spaces and led productive and prominent lives without dogged adherence to Crown or Church, or deferring to governors, magistrates, or bishops.

Much occurred in the Portuguese Atlantic—commerce. Transition, porosity, permeability, and elasticity characterized this other Portuguese Atlantic. The characteristics outlined above were themselves inconstant and transitory, and varied by region and period. This historical overview of the Portuguese Atlantic spans time and space. Part 2 moves to Brazil and Angola in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Part 3 has a maritime focus showing how the ocean facilitated interaction between discrete parts of the Portuguese Atlantic.

Table of Contents: Atlantic history :

Part 4 addresses what was distinctively Portuguese. Treaties and papal bulls created a framework for Portuguese settlement in the Atlantic. Castile could explore, trade, and conquer west of this line, and Portugal east of it. Other Europeans rejected the notion of an Iberian mare clausum. Like other nations and states, Portugal controlled access to ports, rivers, and estuaries in its territorial holdings in Europe and overseas, but the Atlantic remained open to all.

Strategic locations and comparative prosperity made archipelagoes targets of attacks and plunder by Europeans. All archipelagoes were also points of convergence and cultivation of plants native to the Americas, Europe, and Africa. The Madeiras and Azores were oriented to Portugal and attractive to Portuguese emigrant couples and family groups. Madeira attracted migrants of higher social standing and with disposable income.

As Madeira became overpopulated, some residents moved on to the Azores.

Topography, climate, rainfall, and soil quality varied among these archipelagoes and within a single archipelago. Though sugar was its principal export, Madeira also produced timber, wheat, cereals, sweet grapes, and wines, and had stock farms.


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The Azores had similar exports: salt, grains, dyewoods, timber, cattle, sheep, and later cotton, but sugar cultivation never took off. These islands prospered in the sixteenth century as settlers created towns, populations grew, and dioceses came into being. Madeira counted a labor force made up of indigenes from the Canary Islands and individuals from the African mainland.

Wine replaced sugar as the primary export. Funchal was a major port in Atlantic trade, but the rugged terrain and smallness of Madeira limited its growth potential. By the mid-sixteenth century, the archipelago boasted the cities of Angra dos Reis and Ponta Delgada and a dozen or so townships, but immigration plateaued and then declined. Azorean wheat and woad remained major contributors to the Portuguese economy, with primacy going to woad until it succumbed to American indigo.

Five hundred kilometers off the coast of Senegal are the volcanic Cape Verde Islands settled in the s—s. The predominance of single males among immigrants created a marked gender imbalance among Europeans.


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Africans moved from the mainland to some of these islands, and became a majority. A mixed-race population soon came into being. The archipelago was slow to develop, some islands remaining uninhabited because of aridity, prolonged droughts, torrential downpours, and soil erosion.

Land, distributed in smallholdings under the terms of entailed properties inalienably associated with a family but without the potential for individual ownership, created a pattern of landholding that was a disincentive to immigration and population growth.

A Critical Appraisal

Each island had its historical individuality, but the Crown introduced civil and ecclesiastical government in all of them, and a papal bull of authorized an episcopal see. The island of Santiago was predominant and included the major settlements of Ribeira Grande and Praia, each of which became a major urban center Ribeira Grande was accorded the status of a city in and made a bishopric by papal bull , and were rivals as administrative capitals and ports of call until, in the eighteenth century, Ribeira Grande fell into decline and Praia grew in population and importance.

Early exports included salt, grains, and orchil a lichen producing a red dye , and indigo. Plants indigenous to Africa and America converged in the Azores with plants indigenous to Europe. Sugarcane prospered with slave labor from the mainland. Exports continued to include salt, corn, cotton, and dyes, with hides and cotton playing a major role. But, overall, the archipelago declined economically and out-migration grew in the later seventeenth century. Slaves were transported from the African mainland.

Timber was a major resource. Plants were introduced into the archipelago from the African mainland and, later, from Brazil.


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A papal bull of authorized an episcopal see with wide jurisdiction over the mainland from Lower Guinea southward. The population was predominantly mulatto, and women played a prominent role in the local society. On the African continent, Ceuta did not become an anchor for Portuguese colonization. Portuguese kings built coastal forts and opted for garrisons peopled by soldiers and their dependents, and there developed a multicultural, multireligious, and polyglot population of artisans, merchants, and traders.

Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal

Ceuta had a royal municipal charter and was an episcopal see. Portugal had minimal control of lands beyond the vicinity of forts. Whether a Portuguese presence was a waste of men and money was hotly debated. An expedition against Tangiers was a disaster, but King Afonso V — nonetheless advocated a continued presence. Portuguese Morocco depended on the Atlantic.